Systems underlie every phenomenon and all are part of a larger system. Systems stop functioning when an element is removed or changed significantly. Together, they allow understanding and interpretati
Systems underlie every phenomenon and all are part of a larger system. Systems stop functioning when an element is removed or changed significantly. Together, they allow understanding and interpretation of the universe as a meta-system of interlinked wholes, and organize our thoughts about the world. Although different types of systems (from a cell to the human body, soap bubbles to galaxies, ant colonies to nations) look very different on the surface, they have remarkable similarities. At the most basic level, systems are divided into two categories: (1) Closed systems: theoretical systems that do not interact with the environment and are not influenced by its surroundings. Only the components within the system are significant. Example: a sealed jar–nothing enters or exits the jar, but whatever is inside can interact. (2) Open systems: real-world systems whose boundaries allow exchanges of energy, material and information with the larger external environment or system in which they exist.
The purposeful application of information in the design, production, and utilization of goods and services, and in the organization of human activities. Technology can be described in the following wa
General: Restoration of a broken, damaged, or failed device, equipment, part, or property to an acceptable operating or usable condition or state. See also beyond economic repair, major repair, normal